Marine Geology or geographical oceanography is the investigation of the history and structure of the sea floor. It includes geophysical, geochemical, sedimentological and paleontological examinations of the ocean floor and coastal zone. Marine geology has solid connections to geophysics and to physical oceanography.
Marine geological examinations were of extreme significance in giving the basic proof to ocean floor spreading and plate tectonics. The deep-sea floor is the last basically unexplored frontier and point by point mapping in help of both military (submarine) targets and monetary (oil and metal mining) destinations drives the exploration.